Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2017, Page: 25-31
Comparative Study of Prolactin Levels in Acne and Non-Acne Individuals Among Students of College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria
Emmanuel Okechukwu Chukwu, School of Nursing Mkar, Gboko, Nigeria
Odunukwe Juliet Ifeoma, School of Nursing Mkar, Gboko, Nigeria
Terkuma Chia, School of Nursing Mkar, Gboko, Nigeria
Ufearo Chibueze Stephen, Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria
Ugbor Godwin Onyedikachi, School of Midwifery Mkar, Gboko, Nigeria
Received: Feb. 22, 2017;       Accepted: Mar. 21, 2017;       Published: Oct. 18, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijbecs.20170304.11      View  1646      Downloads  80
Abstract
Prolactin (PRL) is well recognized for its role(s) in mammary gland development and function as well as over three hundred non-lactational functions. However, androgens have a main role in acne pathogenesis and the interaction between prolactin and androgens generate the hypothesis of prolactin role in acne pathogenesis. Therefore a difference should exist in the prolactin hormone levels of acne individuals in comparison with non-acne individuals. The aim of this study was to make assessment and comparison of serum hormonal levels of prolactin in acne vulgaris individuals and non-acne individuals. In this cross-sectional case control study, serum levels of prolactin were collected and estimated in 60 subjects consisting of 30 males and 30 females each; of which 15 were the control group and 15, the test group in each category respectively. Also certain criteria’s were looked into such as subject’s age, state of health, menstrual patterns (for females) and much more. Data collected was analyzed using the Software Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). At the end of the experiment, the result showed no significant change (p<0.05), however mean serum prolactin levels were significantly high among the acne cases in both the males (12.26 ± 1.50) when compared to the control of males (8.80 ± 1.03), and also acne cases of the females (22.04 ± 4.59) when compared to the control of the females (12.92 ± 1.62) females. A non-significant change in the comparism of serum prolactin levels of acne subjects and non-acne subjects in both males and females may be as result of the small sample size used. However, more powerful studies are needed. An increase in the mean serum prolactin levels of acne subjects in both categories when compared to non-acne subjects indicates the contribution of prolactin in the pathogenesis of acne.
Keywords
Comparative, Study, Prolactin, Levels, Acne, Non-Acne, Individuals
To cite this article
Emmanuel Okechukwu Chukwu, Odunukwe Juliet Ifeoma, Terkuma Chia, Ufearo Chibueze Stephen, Ugbor Godwin Onyedikachi, Comparative Study of Prolactin Levels in Acne and Non-Acne Individuals Among Students of College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria, International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2017, pp. 25-31. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbecs.20170304.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Adityan, B. and Thappa, D. M (2009) Profile of Acne Vulgar: A Hospital-Based Study from South India. Indian Journal of Dermatology. Venereol Leprol Vol. 75 pp 272-278.
[2]
Aksu A. E. K., Metntas S., Saracolglu, Z. N., Glurel, G., Sabuncu, I., Arikan, I., and Kalyoncu (2012) Acne: Prevalence and Relationship with Dietary Habits in Eskisehir, Turkey. Journal of European Academy Dermatology. Venereol Vol. 26 PP 1503-1509.
[3]
Aktan S, Ozmen E, Sanli B. (2000) Anxiety, depression, and nature of acne vulgaris in adolescents. International Journal of Dermatolgy, Vol. 39 (5) pp 354–7.
[4]
Barnes L., Levender, M. M., Fleischer, A. B. and Feldman, S. R (2012) Quality of Life Measures for Acne Patients. Elsevier, Vol. 3 (2) 293-99.
[5]
Bhate K, and Williams HC. (2013) Epidemiology of acne vulgaris. British Journal of Dermatology 168 (3), 474-85. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12149.
[6]
Bole-Feysot, C., Goffin, V., Edery M, Binart N, Kelly PA (1998) Prolactin (PRL) and its Receptor: Actions, Signal Transduction Pathways and Phenotypes Observed in PRL Receptor Knockout Mice. Endocrine Review. Vol. 19: 225–268.
[7]
Chiu, S. and Wise P. M (2003) Prolactin Receptor mRNA Localization in the Hypothalamus by in situ Hybridization. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 6: 191–199.
[8]
Cooper TG, McKelvey J, Sumrada R. (1979) Oxalurate transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Bacteriology 139 (3) 917-23.
[9]
Freeman ME, Kanyicska B, Lerant A, Nagy G. (2000) Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion. American Physiological Society Journals. Physiological Reviews 80 (4): 1523-631.
[10]
Hartshone, S. T (2003) Dermatological Disorders in Johannesburg, South Africa. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, Vol. 28 PP. 661-665. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2230.2003.01417.x.
[11]
Jara, L. J, Vera-Lastra, O., Miranda, J. M., Alcala, M., and Alvarez-Nemegyei, J. (2001) Prolactin in Human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Lupus. 10: 748-56.
[12]
Kamangar, F., and Shinkai, K. (2012) Acne in the Adult Female Patient: A Practical Approach. International Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 15 (10): 1162-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05519.x.
[13]
Kruger, O., Ladewig, J., Koster, K., &Ragg, H. (2002). Widespread Occurrence of Serpin Genes with Multiple Reactive Centre-containing exon Cassettes in Insects and Nematodes. Gene, 293, 97-105. doi: 10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00697-2.
[14]
Kurokawa I, Danby FW, Ju Q, Wang X, Xiang LF, Xia L, Chen W, Nagy I, Picardo M, Suh DH, Ganceviciene R, Schagen S, Tsatsou F, Zouboulis CC (2009) New developments in our understanding of acne pathogenesis and treatment. Journal of Experimental Dermatology, 18 (10) 821-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.0089.X.
[15]
Lennartsson, A. K., Kushnir, M. M., Bergquist, J., Billig, H., and Jonsdottir, I. H. (2012) Sex Steroid Levels Temporarily Increase in Response to Acute Psychosocial Stress in Healthy Men and Women. International Journal of Psychophysiology. Vol. 84: 246–253.
[16]
Liang, P. and Pardee, A. B. (1992) Differential display of eukaryotic messenger RNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction. Science, 257, 967–971.
[17]
Lobo RA, Kletzky OA. (1983) Normalization of Androgen and sex Hormone-binding Globulin Levels After Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 56: 562.
[18]
Lolis, M. S, Bowe W. P, and Shalita A. R. (2009) Acne and Systemic Disease. Journal of Medical Clinics of North America, Vol. 93 (6): 1161-1181. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2009.08.008.
[19]
Strauss JS, Krowchuk DP, Leyden JJ, Lucky AW, Shalita AR, Siegfried EC, Thiboutot DM, Van Voorhees AS, Beutner KA, Sieck CK, Bhushan R (2007) Guidelines of Care for Acne Vulgaris Management. Journal of American Academic of Dermatology, Vol. 56, pp. 651-63.
[20]
Tan JK, Bhate K (2015) A global perspective on the Epidemiology of Acne. British Journal of Dermatology, 172 (1) 3-12. doi: 10.1111/bjd.13462.
[21]
Thiboutot, D., Gollnick, H., Bettoli, V., Dréno, B., Kang, S., Leyden, J. J., Shalita, A. R., Lozada, V. T., Berson, D., Finlay, A., Goh, C. L, Herane, M. I, Kaminsky, A. Kubba, R., Layton, A., Miyachi, Y., Perez, M., Martin, J. P., Rasmos-E-Silva, M., See, J. A., Shear, N., and Wolf J. (2009) Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne. New Insight into the Management of Acne: An Update from the Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne Group. Journal of American Academic of Dermatology. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad2009.01.019.
[22]
Torre, D. L., and Falorni, A. (2007). Pharmacological Causes of Hyperprolactinemia. Journal of Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, Vol. 3 (5), 929–951.
[23]
Yahya H. (2009) Acne Vulgaris in Nigerian Adolescents- Prevalence, Severity, Beliefs, Perceptions and Practices. International Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 48 (5): 498-505. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.03922.X.
[24]
Yahya, H. (2007) Change in Pattern of Skin Disease in Kaduna, North Central Nigeria. International Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 46 pp. 936-943. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2007.03218.x.
Browse journals by subject